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INDEPENDENCE.

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INDEPENDENCE.
During the three Colonial centuries, injustice and inequality in the strict caste system, the creoles had lower opportunities and rights (spaniard children born in Mexico). This brought as a consequence that in the 18th century, a revolt feeling growing within the creole against the peninsular spaniards. The first, by the only fact of having been born in these lands were not entitled to the highest positions among civilians, military and religious authorities; power, trade and wealth were jealously restricted to the hands of peninsular spaniards.

"The first Creoles, by the fact that their positions and prestige was based on the exploits of their parents, were proud of their hispanic descent: their social and economic situation was based on the prestige of being spanish, and descendants of conquerors. This original livelihood came into crisis when the Crown attacked the basis of their economic and social position (las encomiendas ), and installed in the viceroyalty a spanish officials bureaucracy that excluded creoles from leadership positions. At the end of the 16th century, the creole resentment caused by the continuing deterioration of their social position was expressed in a pointed animosity against the gachupines, spaniards who came to America, remained for a few years and returned to spain enriched.

INDEPENDENCE.To this political frustration an identity problem was added." (Enrique Florescano. 1987)

Throughout the three hundred years these Colonial "injustices", not those committed against indigenous people, blacks and mestizos, started the independence movement. A handful of native creoles eager to fully participate in the exploitation of the colonial riches began to conspire against the viceroy government. At that time, Spain had been invaded by Napoleon Bonaparte and took prisoners in France Carlos IV, his heir Fernando VII and the royal family. Was ruled by "Pepe Botella",[1] Napoleon alcoholic brother, and in theory, the riches produced by the Spain american colonies, should reach the napoleonic coffers. But the English, Napoleon eternal enemies, prevented it thanks to their powerful naval fleet in 1805 under the command of Admiral Nelson, had defeated the armies of Spain and France, in the famous Trafalgar battle, which made contact between Europe and America very difficult. The english would not let the colonial wealth pass, because they knew that it would be used to invade England itself.

"In 1808, Spain was invaded by the Napoleon armies and King Carlos IV and his heir Fernando VII were taken prisoner by the French. For the first time the inhabitants of the kingdoms of Spain and of the Indies surprised contemplated the disappearance of the royal link that united them. In New Spain, the viceroyalty authorities declared that the imprisonment of the monarchs did not change anything "legitimately established powers must continue as usual". But the creoles claimed that there was a new political situation, and pointed out that the situation forced to raise the question of where resided sovereignty and who should take it given the circumstances at the time." (Enrique Florescano. 1987)

Whilst the Kings were prisoners of the french, the peninsular spanish authorities made their power omnipotent in America, which accelerated the creole insurgent movement, in addition to the liberal current that was brewing among an important sector of Spain. Thus several small insurgent conatuses began to sprout, led by creoles, but all were quickly stifled; in part because they did not have popular support and in part, because three centuries later, the spaniards already had a true army organized, disciplined and armed, that immediately suffocated small creole uprisings that lacked popular support.

"But now each day are becoming more numerous (creoles) those who believe that the ways of reform are closed, and that it?s needed to resort to violent means. The principles are the same managed by the creole party in 1808. The following year Julián de Castillejos, official Creole, went to trial for having made a call to viceroy Garibay to form a board in the name of Fernando VII, on the basis that "in the current circumstances sovereignty resides in the people". In September of the same year a new Valladolid conspiracy is discovered, headed by Captain José María García Obeso and don José Mariano Michelena, that included several creole officers and low clergy. Their plan was to form a congress made up of members of the villas, who would hold the royal sovereignty in deposit." (Luis Villoro. 1976)

It is then that the Bajio creole conspirators, decided to invite a priest, so that he in turn, promotes the rebellion among the indigenous peoples. When the conspiracy is discovered and about to be apprehended, the priest Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo and Costilla Gallaga (1753-1811) gives the ?Grito de Dolores?. It is important to note that at the end of the proclamation, Miguel Hidalgo cheers the King of Spain. The pro-independence creoles remained ideologically close to Ferdinand VII, prisoner by Napoleon in France.

"The other rebellion leader, Allende, can no longer easily follow the popular bias that the revolution has taken. His disagreements with Hidalgo are explained, not by personal conflicts, but by his ambiguous social status. Allende does not understand nor approve the condescension of Hidalgo with the plebs. From the outset strives to transform the rebellion in an uprising ordered, directed by official creoles; but his anger reaches the limit when the priest begins to drop into oblivion the figure of Ferdinand VII. The attitude of Allende is the first sign of many creoles hesitation before a revolution that tends to surpass them." (Luis Villoro. 1976) The proposal consisted in that creoles sought to become independent from the peninsular yoke, becoming temporarily independent of Spain, because as such the Napoleonic France would not have any rights on the New Spain. So that as soon as Ferdinand VII, became free and reign again in Spain, the creoles would rejoin the spanish crown. Certainly under a different power correlation with the peninsulars. This was the creoles true intention at the beginning of the insurgent movement and not free and provide independence to indians and blacks.

Proof of this is that when Hidalgo, at the front, not of an army, but at the head of a mob of inflamed[2] indians and violent over the three hundred years of exploitation and injustice, go through the Bajio destroying villages and murdering peninsulars, they arrive to the Mexico city gates, in the famous battle of the ?Monte de las Cruces? on October 30, 1810; where supposedly, according to the "official history" version, Hidalgo does not realize that the powerful vice royal army commanded by royal lieutenant colonel Torcuato Trujillo is defeated, and orders withdrawal, rather than entering and taking the New Spain capital. It is likely that Hidalgo knew what he was doing, he knew that he won the battle, but decided not to take the city because of the slaughter the uncontrollable indians would make (they were not an army) of defenseless spanish. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla retreats and shall be pursued by a new colonial army until his capture. He died before a fire squad on 30 July in Chihuahua.

In the process José María Morelos y Pavón (1765-1815) shows up. His proposal is different from Hidalgo; he does pretend a true independence from Spain and the creation of an independent nation,[3] as those that were emerging in Europe and the already established United States of America. But we must remember that Morelos was mestizo, after waging the insurgent war he has the same fate as Hidalgo. On November 5, 1815 he was decisively defeated at Temazcala, where he was apprehended. He was taken to Mexico, where he is publicly degraded of his priestly investiture and was sentenced to death. On 22 December he was taken to San Cristóbal Ecatepec, where he faced a firing squad.

Vicente Guerrero Saldaña (1782-1831) takes the insurgent torch, maintaining a squalid insurgent presence. Guerrero without weapons, trained soldiers, with little economic support and after 11 painful years of insurrection, decided to negotiate with Augustin de Iturbide Arámburu (1783-1824), who at the time, has been appointed by viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca (1754-1835) as head of a numerous army that will definitively end the waning insurgency in the south. The peninsular spaniards seeing that Liberals were dangerously gained ground in power in Spain, to take distance from the liberal government in Spain, decide to join the independence, proposing that the nation remained catholic, that a "moderate" monarchy headed by Fernando VII or one of his sons governed and to declare the creoles and peninsular gachupines with equal rights. In this way Vicente Guerrero through the "Acatempan hug", agrees to join up with Agustín de Iturbide and the two armies, return to the city of Mexico and consummate the independence. As can be seen, the independence war can be tracked through castes. The creoles were Hidalgo and Iturbide, and mestizos Morelos and Guerrero.

The war of independence emerged as a struggle of economic and political power between the spanish creole and peninsular spaniards. The indigenous mass was used as cannon fodder and it was the mestizos, who gave a real independent sense to the insurrection. Finally, it was a creole who betrayed the peninsular and the same creoles, when naming himself emperor. Indigenous peoples only served as an armed mob, for both sides.


1.? Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (7 January 1768 ? Italy, 28 July 1844) was the elder brother of Napoleon I of France, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806?1808), and later King of Spain and the Indies as Joseph I of Spain (1808?1813). After the fall of Napoleon I, Joseph styled himself "Comte de Survilliers" (English: Count of Survilliers).
2.? The insurgents were more than 80 thousand men, of whom only about 2,000 were soldiers with regular preparation and weapons, the rest followed with faith the cure of Dolores armed only with their courage. The Royalist forces were made up of 2 thousand infantry, 400 cavalry troops and two pieces of artillery.
3.? On September 13, 1813, the first Congress met in Chilpancingo, where the famous act of independence, under which was proclaimed the Republic of Mexico was dr

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