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The concept of The FLOWERY BATTLES is very revealing of the philosophical conception of Anahuac.

First we observe that the war to the ancient Mexicans, probably since the first Olmec societies now call, was symbolic.

As noted already, there is no commensurate progress between mathematics, medicine and architecture, to name just three aspects of culture, with the development of weapons. Indeed, the weapons found in the iconography of the Pre classic period, will be the same we see in the Post classic period with the Mexica. The obvious question is, why there were gains in other areas of knowledge and military technology remained almost the same, except for the atlatl, which was invented for hunting birds on the wing by the Toltecs.


"It is then likely that the trophy pursuing a Flowery battle Warrior"  "was none other than his own soul." (Laurtte Séjurné. 1957)


This is not "failure and inferiority" cultural or technological. On the contrary, reveals that the Old Grandparents did not focus its development on weapons and war. It was always more of a symbolic nature-religious, than an "industry" expansion, exploitation and annihilation, as they have used to this day Western culture. The war from the first presence of Quetzalcoatl Olmec carvings refers to the spiritual symbol of the internal war, which the Toltecs called, in the Classical period, "The Flowery battle."


"We have already seen on several occasions that human existence should focus on the importance of the world of form that hides the ultimate reality. This reality lies at the heart, and you need to force it to release all costs: this is the ultimate goal of the "flowery war." Reach, to grab your heart means then penetrate into the spiritual life. "(Laurette Séjurné. 1957)


Although the period of expansion in Mexico, the war was used as never before seen in the Central Anahuac, the belligerence of the Mexica did not constitute a "war of extermination" as applied in the European conquest in America. The war in the last period of the Post classic was a pursuit of power between the Manors, essentially a high ritual and religious meaning.


"The Cholula people, who had never seen Mexicans in the field (never had faced military) wanted to try his luck and courage. Which sent his messengers to Cuauhquecholan Atzitziuacan and borders, which were "to tell them of his party advised to Moctecuhzoma how they wanted to enjoy itself and rejoice with them and rejoice in that field to the god of the earth and give content to the lord of battles and the sun that send their people begged that they would be in the field waiting for a third day.”... "But, feeling the damage (the Cholula), then dispatched a messenger to Moctecuhzoma, giving an account of what they had done that day and lost a lot of people. And waiting another day to see if the Cholulans asked for more battle, or they wanted to avenge his people, Mexicans rigged to avenge his loss, the Cholulans sent their messengers to the Mexican army general, saying he had been loose and joyful and Last time around with them, that was enough, they could go with God. "(Fray Diego Durán.)


The Mexica developed a holy war and fighting, they say, to keep alive the Fifth Sun that was threatened in its existence, according to religious and ideological reforms made Tlacaelel and also extended their dominance and increased the number of tributary towns. Warriors who died in these battles were the highest social aspiration.


“That had no shame in it, and that the death of his brother (Moctezuma) was heavy, for losing brave men, but to die in honor and defense of the homeland were tinted and enameled with the hue and glaze of high blood value, adorned with precious stones and feathers of his greatness accurate and upheld and that this was the end and all he had hoped, it did not die as women behind the brands and phonemes, but with sword in hand, qualifying with the spray of blood and the grass field outside and the sun's rays that extend them, and boasted of this and was very proud. And then control would go all the funerals of all the gentlemen who had died in that battle ... "(Fray Diego Durán.)


The wars of the Aztecs were made to get prisoners and bring them to Tenochtitlan and sacrifice. The prisoners were treated with great respect; they were for them, "food of the eagle." It was considered a fumble that killed a soldier in the battlefield to his adversary; the aim was to take captive. The prisoners themselves on one side and a felt honored for their final destination.


Far from being a war of extermination and plunder, as the Europeans, the flower wars of the Mexica, but had suffered a bizarre change, they change the spiritual sacrifice of the material. Flowery Battle ceased to be an internal struggle to become a fight to take prisoners to the sacrificial stone, kept a sense of spiritual grandeur, even disrupted.


The warriors who went to the Flower Wars carried on their shoulders the immense social and religious responsibility to "keep alive the Fifth Sun." There was no activity in Mexican culture that had highest honor, because it "served" not only the people but mainly the universe.


"The reason why they moved so many to war, but the main one being its own interest and gain honor and property, the latter was to have no life at all and have them blessed who die in war and so called xochiyaoyotl war, which means "flowery war", and the resulting, called the death of dying in war xuchimiquiztli, which means "death pink, happy and blessed." (Fray Diego Durán.)


It was precisely the change of character Toltec spiritual symbolism that Tlacaelel introduced, which gave the Aztecs a materialist doctrine mystic warrior. Florida Battle of inward and spiritual character of the Toltecs, was changed by a Florida Battle against neighbors and weapons made "relatively harmless". Post classic these wars intensified in the last two hundred years before the arrival of the Spanish, during the formation of the Triple Alliance and the consolidation of the Aztec Empire. These wars were generally more symbolic and ritual, although the Aztecs came to "punish" exception to some people, usually not destroyed the cities and not massacred civilians.


"Arrows, the chief attribute of this warrior blue, are evidently not only symbolize the inner lightning that reveal the existence of a divine status" ... "In the immersion in this higher consciousness that dissolves his Quetzalcoatl comes armed with arrows that allow you to, to become Lord of the Dawn," shoot its rays "that reveal to human salvation that everyone must try for yourself. '(Laurette Séjurné. 1957)


Flowery Battle of the Toltecs meant the fight more difficult for a human being can face. Men and women were preparing for this "internal war" and as such, they became warriors. “Discipline, frugality and austerity that made these warriors were rigorous and very strict. The weapons were "flower and song" and the battlefield was his own heart. Overcome the inertia that destroys matter. Vice, laziness, personal ignorance. These warriors of death flowered; hunters were impeccable knowledge and spiritual temperance makers."


! Emeralds are: turquoise your clay and your feathers, oh giver of life! Happiness and wealth of the princes. Is death the edge of obsidian, Death in war. "

(Romances of the Lords of the New Spain.)


The Toltec formed a school of philosophical insight tight, like the other ancient civilizations with independent origin. The concepts of the warrior, the flowery battle, flower and song, the face itself and the true heart. They speak a whole philosophical view of the spiritual possibilities of human existence and had the ability to transcend the limited spaces of material existence. The Flowery Battle is one of the most vigorous expressions of the philosophical with the Toltecs of the world and life.


(From the book ROOTS AND ESSENCE OF OLD MEXICO. Guillermo Marín 2004)



Traducción de

Alejandro Sandoval Valencia