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Toltec mathematics and time measuring

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Mathematics was a fundamental knowledge field of our ancestors. It was necessary not only for construction of monumental and exquisite knowledge centers, but in the field of calendars and time measurement. Indeed, the Mayans invented the mathematical zero, and in their calendar measurements the figures are both incredible and perfect. Our ancestors had three different calendars, the three assembled into a perfect one. The first was 260 days and in relation to the Moon. The second was 365-¼, related to the earth orbital movement around the Sun. The third was 52 years and was perfectly synchronized with the earth orbital movement around the group of stars called "The Pleiades" or Seven Sisters (Messier object 45). Also the Venus cycle.

 

"We also know the relationship that exists between the architectural disposition of Teotihuacan and the passing of the Pleiades zenith every 52 years, as a big year in the Taurus constellation, this great year is the time at which both counts join: the 260-day ritual that relates to Venus and Earth orbits, and solar agricultural of 365.25 days, which happens every 18,980 days, i.e. one Xiuhmolpilli."  (Maria Elena Romero Murguía. 1988)

 

 

The calendar was so perfect that, when Europeans arrived and knew it, they realized that their Julian calendar[1] was wrong and adjusted their calendar to ours, and called it Gregorian[2], since it was Pope Gregory XIII who ordered the reform to the Julian calendar in 1582.

 

 

"The origin of the prehispanic computation has been traced from its Olmec roots. Remember that the word Olmec derives from two words: ollin: movement and mecatl: rope (mecate), in reference to the measure with a rope; i.e. the measure of movement or the movement measure. This means that the Olmecs were known probably as cosmic movement measures and its expression in geometric shapes... "." (MA.) Elena Romero M. 1988)

 

 

Mexico possessed 75% of the planet's biodiversity. Our ancestors knew the medicinal uses of food, utilities, surprisingly almost all plants, minerals and animals; which inter alia allowed them to develop one of the perfect and ancient medicines of the world, which has survived to date. The Codex de la Cruz-Badiano[3] (1552), the amazing cranial trepanning found in burials, the massagers, those using plants (yerberos) and healers, is testimony of the permanence of this millenary wisdom that has resisted disappearing. We can say that the global Pharmacology[4] foundations were built on contributions from three civilizations: China, India and Anahuac. To appreciate the complex and sophisticated knowledge of ancient Mexicans of the human body will cite from the book "Human body human and ideology”, the Nahuatl names of the eye parts and thus infer the knowledge degree about human medicine:

 

 

“IXTELOLOTLI.

1.                 Eyebrow  (piloso set) Ixcuamolli.

2.                 Eye lash, Cochiatl.

3.                 Pupil, Ixneneuh. Ixttouh. Teouh, Yoyolca.

4.                 Eye lid, Ixquimiliuhcayotl.

5.                 Sclera, Iztacauh.

6.                 Iris, Tlilticauh.

7.                 Eyebroe (prominent part without hair) Ixcuatolli.

8.                 Circular socket between the orbit and the eye, Ixcomol. Ixtecocomol.

Ixtecocoyoctli.

9.                 Eye socket, Ixcallocantli.

10.            Internal palpebral face, Ixquempalli.

11.            Eye lid free edge, Ixtentli.

12.            Tear, Ixayotl.

13.            Lacrimal bone, Ixcuichilli, Ixtencuilchilli, Ixomoljuhcantli?

14.            Conjunctiva, Ixtocatzahuallo? (Alfredo López Austin. 1980)

 

 

Engineering with our ancestors reached unimaginable levels. Our civilization mixed very well engineering with astronomy and religion. In fact, beyond the challenge to physics laws, mathematics and nature perfection; the Anahuac monumental constructions had the goal of harmoniously uniting mankind with earth, planets, and stars, in an amazing and wonderful approximation to the divine and universe sanctity. Because our ancestors lived for millennia with a spiritual sense and in harmony with the universe.

 

 

"There was no doubt for him[5] that the Mayans had been accomplished mathematicians, astronomers and navigators, and who were familiar with flat and spherical trigonometry, that placed them in a position to calculate the world size, calculate the distance from pole to pole, and estimate the length of a Meridian. He believed that, as the Egyptians, the Mayans had added their cosmogony and religious conceptions to their sacred buildings, particularly the pyramids". (Peter Tompkins. 1981)

 

 

Translator: Raúl Gutierrez  rg@cablevision.net.mx

 

 

 


[1]The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BCE.

 
[2]The Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar or the Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582, a papal bull known by its opening words “Inter  gravissimas”. The reformed calendar was adopted later that year by a handful of countries, with other countries adopting it over the following centuries. The motivation for the Gregorian reform was that the Julian calendar assumes that the time between vernal equinoxes is 365.25 days, when in fact it is about 11 minutes less. The accumulated error between these values was about 10 days when the reform was made, resulting in the equinox occurring on March 11 and moving steadily earlier in the calendar. Since the equinox was tied to the celebration of Easter, the Roman Catholic Church considered that this steady movement was undesirable. 

[3]The Codex de la Cruz-Badiano or Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis (Latin for "Little Book

 

of the Medicinal Herbs of the Indians") is an Aztec herbal manuscript, describing the medicinal properties of various plants used by the Aztecs. It was translated into Latin by Juan Badiano, from a Nahuatl original composed in the Colegio de Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco in 1552 by Martín de la Cruz that is no longer extant. The Codex is also known as the Badianus Manuscript, after the translator; the Codex de la Cruz-Badiano, after both the original author and translator; and the Codex Barberini, after Cardinal Francesco Barberini, who had possession of the manuscript in the early 17th century.

[4]Pharmacology. Part of medical sciences, related to medical compounds.

 

[5]Augustus Le Plongeon. Archaeological Communication in Yucatán. Worcester: Press of

 

 Charles Hamilton, 1879. North American Archaeologist of French origin that discovered the Chac Mol. 

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