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The knowledge developed by these six root civilizations, from approximately 10 thousand years ago, has been the foundation of all human knowledge. The man in the Moon and computers are only its continuity and its results. The ancient ancestors, without anyone´s help and only from methodical and systematic observation of nature and of the skies, managed to "weave" an immeasurable knowledge network, that through the centuries and from generation to generation, formed the cultural heritage of our civilization.



"Astronomy was well known among Mesoamerican peoples, specially the Toltecs. The Toltecs were wise, all their works were good, all were honest, all well planned, all wonderful... Knew its influence, knew well how the sky works, how it spins... The observation of natural phenomena which invariably repeated, among which were above all the numbers 4, 7 and 13. "Thus, from their combination of a lot of cycles were obtained." (Maria Elena Romero Murguía. 1988)



Our ancestors had two aspects of knowledge, one was male, the other female. One was accurate, cold and distant: celestial mechanics. The other was kind, generous and capricious: nature. From firmament observation, nature and the essence of the human being, our ancestors built all their knowledge.



"If we take four cycles of 13, we obtain 52;" seven periods of 52 days makes a total of 364... In relation to 13, there are 13 moon periods in a year. If we take rounded figures of 28 days: 28 x 13 = 364. Thirteen are the Nahuatl cosmogony skies as described in the Latin Codex or Ríos Codex; 13 years make up a tlalpilli and by multiplying 7 times 13, yields 91 <Nepoualtzizin number of elements>, which represents the number of days in a season, from Equinox to Solstice and from Solstice to Equinox. If 91 is doubled, we have 182, which symbolizes the maize cycle number of days; If tripled, the result is 273, i.e. the number of days required for a pregnancy, or a ritual 260 days count, plus thirteen; If quadrupled, we obtain 364; hence, 91 x 4 = 364, or else 91 months equal to seven years <2,548 days>, 91 years <33,124 days> or 91 four-year cycles, 364 x 364, making a total of 132,496 days. "Therefore we highlight the main computations of prehispanic calculation: four, seven and 13." (Maria Elena Romero Murguía. 1988






Maize invention, perhaps was one of their greatest achievements, from wild grass, our ancestors, produced the splendid corn plant through what we now call biogenetic engineering.  Development of hydraulic engineering in agriculture, the invention of corn plant and the Chinampa[1]. The development of health, food, education and social organization efficient systems, represent the great achievements of our ancestors at the early stages.



"The chinampas are the most developed forms of crop rotation and mixed crops as well as more intensive use of seedbeds." This type of agriculture is in production throughout the year, year after year; "certainly it is one of the agricultural systems more permanent, intensive and productive in the world."  (A. Palerm 1990)



In the Anahuac[2], hydraulic engineering reached advanced levels, not only by the irrigation extensive use, but in the Chinampa concept, advanced even in our days. Definitely we cannot imagine the wonders of Teotihuacán or Chichen Itza, without the basis of an efficient food system, that supported the challenge involved in the construction of the many knowledge centers that existed in the Cem Anahuac. The Tenochtitlan city seen by the spaniards in 1519, built during the decadent postclassical period was an example of engineering and architecture knowledge and application.



"In Spain, and throughout Europe, did not then exist urban conglomerates comparable with Mexico, although some claim it had a population of a million and a half inhabitants, it is likely that it had around half a million (London did not have more than 40 thousand and Paris, the largest city, barely had 65 thousand), and that does not include other cities of the Valley, that also had large populations, such as, Texcoco, Azcapotzalco, Iztapalapa, Tacuba, etc." (Jose Luis Guerrero. 1990)



The hydraulic engineering works required to divide, contain, and regulate the Anahuac Valley Lakes represented a technological advance unknown to Europeans; as well as the reticular street concept, avenues, roads, channels. This decadent postclassical period city, had drinking water, plazas, schools (Calpuli), markets (Tianguis), cultural centers, courts, libraries, Zoo, temples, ballgame courts, museums, community barns (Cuexcomate), everything that for people of our time implies a "modern" city.



"This city has many places where there is a continuous market and buy and selling deals." It has another plaza as large as two times the city of Salamanca, all fenced around with portals where there are daily over sixty thousand souls...There is a large house in this large square, as if for hearings, where they are always seated ten or twelve people, who are judges...There are many mosques or idols houses with very beautiful buildings in the neighborhoods... among these mosques there is one which is the main, that there is no human language that can explain its greatness and particularities... There are a good forty high towers and well-constructed, the main has fifty steps to climb to the body of the Tower; the principal is higher than the Tower of the Church of Seville... There are many good and very large houses in this great city.... On an avenue entering this great city, there are two mortar pipes, two steps wide each, and as high as a person and by each of them flows very good fresh water, as wide as the body of man, which flows to the city, from there all are served and drink. The other, which is empty, is when they want to clean the other pipe. "." Hernán Cortés (1519)



Translator:Raúl Gutierrez  




[1]Chinampa is a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small, rectangle-shaped areas of fertilearable land to grow crops on the shallow lake beds in the Valley of Mexico.
[2]Cem ?náhuac is the name of the Mexica civilization known territories before the spanish invasion.